Renewable energy products
GRINOR provide the diverse of Solar panels and Win
turbines. Each products have special features suitable with
severe weather conditions and diversified demand. GRINOR are providing products of the leading
technology such as
Solar Panels and
Solar Panels - PV module or Photovoltaic Panels
• Solar electricity is created by using Photovoltaic (PV)
technology by converting solar energy into solar electricity
from sunlight. Photovoltaic systems use sunlight to power
ordinary electrical equipment, for example, household
appliances, computers and lighting. The photovoltaic (PV)
process converts free solar energy - the most abundant energy
source on the planet - directly into solar power. Note that this
is not the familiar "passive" or Solar electricity thermal
technology used for space heating and hot water production.
• A PV cell consists of two or more thin layers of
semi-conducting material, most commonly silicon. When the
silicon is exposed to light, electrical charges are generated
and this can be conducted away by metal contacts as direct
current (DC). The electrical output from a single cell is small,
so multiple cells are connected together and encapsulated
(usually behind glass) to form a module (sometimes referred to
as a "panel"). The PV module is the principle building block of
a PV system and any number of modules can be connected together
to give the desired electrical output.
• PV equipment has no moving parts and as a result requires
minimal maintenance. It generates solar electricity without
producing emissions of greenhouse or any other gases, and its
operation is virtually silent.
Comparison table of various types of solar cells:
receive per 1sqm
Surface area required for 1 kW power
Amorphous silicon cells are composed of
silicon atoms in a thin homogenous layer rather than a
crystal structure. Amorphous silicon absorbs light more
effectively than crystalline silicon, so the cells can be
thinner. For this reason, amorphous silicon is also known as
a "thin film" PV technology. Amorphous silicon can be
deposited on a wide range of substrates, both rigid and
flexible, which makes it ideal for curved surfaces and
"fold-away" modules. Amorphous cells are, however, less
efficient than crystalline based cells, with typical
efficiencies of around 6%, but they are easier and therefore
cheaper to produce. Their low cost makes them ideally suited
for many applications where high efficiency is not required
and low cost is important. One characteristic of amorphous
solar cells is that their power output reduces over time,
particularly during the first few months, after which time
they are basically stable. The quoted output of an amorphous
panel should be that produced after this stabilization
Copper Indium Diselenide
Other Thin Films: A number of other promising materials such as Cadmium
Telluride (CdTe) and Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS) are now being used for PV
modules. The attraction of these technologies is that they can be manufactured
by relatively inexpensive industrial processes, certainly in comparison to
crystalline silicon technologies, yet they typically offer higher module
efficiencies than amorphous silicon. New technologies based on the
photosynthesis process are not yet on the market.
Made from cells cut from an ingot of melted and
recrystallised silicon. In the manufacturing process, molten
silicon is cast into ingots of polycrystalline silicon,
these ingots are then saw-cut into very thin wafers and
assembled into complete cells. Multi-crystalline cells are
cheaper to produce than mono-crystalline ones, due to the
simpler manufacturing process. However, they tend to be
slightly less efficient, with average efficiencies of around
12%. They have a speckled crystal reflective appearance, and
again need to be mounted in a rigid frame.
Mono- crystalline Silicon
Made using cells saw-cut from a single cylindrical crystal
of silicon, they are effectively a slice from a crystal.
This is the most efficient of the photovoltaic (PV)
technologies. The principle advantage of mono-crystalline
cells are their high efficiencies, typically around 15%,
although the manufacturing process required to produce
mono-crystalline silicon is complicated, resulting in
slightly higher costs than other technologies. In
appearance, it will have a smooth texture and you will be
able to see the thickness of the slice. They are also
rigid and must be mounted in a rigid frame top protect
Wind turbine - Wind power unit (WPU)
- A wind turbine converts the energy of wind into kinetic
energy. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery,
such as pumping water, cutting lumber or grinding stones, the
machine is called a windmill. If the mechanical energy is
instead converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind
generator, wind turbine, wind power unit (WPU), wind energy
converter (WEC), or aero generator.
- Wind turbines can rotate about either a horizontal or
vertical axis, the former being more common.
Horizontal axis wind turbines ():
• HAWT have the main rotor shaft and electrical
generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the
wind. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while
large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo
motor. Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the
blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an
• Since a tower produces turbulence behind it, the turbine is
usually pointed upwind of the tower. Turbine blades are made
stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by
high winds. Additionally, the blades are placed a considerable
distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted forward
into the wind a small amount.
• Downwind machines have been built, despite the problem of
turbulence (mast wake), because they don't need an additional
mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind, and because in
high winds the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their
swept area and thus their wind resistance. Since cyclic (that is
repetitive) turbulence may lead to fatigue failures most HAWTs
are upwind machines.
Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs):
• Have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. Key advantages
of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be
pointed into the wind to be effective. This is an advantage on
sites where the wind direction is highly variable.
• With a vertical axis, the generator and gearbox can be placed
near the ground, so the tower doesn't need to support it, and it
is more accessible for maintenance. Drawbacks are that some
designs produce pulsating torque.
• It is difficult to mount vertical-axis turbines on
towers, meaning they are often installed nearer
to the base on which they rest, such as the ground or a building
rooftop. The wind speed is slower at a lower altitude, so less
wind energy is available for a given size turbine. Air flow near
the ground and other objects can create turbulent flow, which
can introduce issues of vibration, including noise and bearing
wear which may increase the maintenance or shorten the service
life. However, when a turbine is mounted on a rooftop, the
building generally redirects wind over the roof and this can
double the wind speed at the turbine. If the height of the
rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximately 50% of the
building height, this is near the optimum for maximum wind
energy and minimum wind turbulence.
Comparison table of two types of wind turbine:
Variable blade pitch, which gives the
turbine blades the optimum angle of attack. Allowing the
angle of attack to be remotely adjusted gives greater
control, so the turbine collects the maximum amount of
wind energy for the time of day and season.
• The tall tower base allows access to stronger wind in
sites with wind shear. In some wind shear sites, the wind
speed can increase by 20% and the power output by 34% for
every 10 metres in elevation.
• High efficiency, since the blades always move
perpendicular to the wind, receiving power through the
whole rotation. In contrast, all vertical axis wind
turbines, and most proposed airborne wind turbine designs,
involve various types of reciprocating actions, requiring
airfoil surfaces to backtrack against the wind for part of
the cycle. Backtracking against the wind leads to
inherently lower efficiency.
• The face of a horizontal axis blade is struck by the
wind at a consistent angle regardless of the position in
its rotation. This results in a consistent lateral wind
loading over the course of a rotation, reducing vibration
and audible noise coupled to the tower or mount.
The tall towers and blades up to 45 meters long are difficult
to transport. Transportation can now amount to 20% of equipment costs.
• Tall HAWTs are difficult to install, needing very tall and
expensive cranes and skilled operators.
• Massive tower construction is required to support the heavy
blades, gearbox, and generator.
• Reflections from tall HAWTs may affect side lobes of radar
installations creating signal clutter, although filtering can suppress it.
• Their height makes them obtrusively visible across large
areas, disrupting the appearance of the landscape and sometimes creating local
• Downwind variants suffer from fatigue and structural failure
caused by turbulence when a blade passes through the tower's wind shadow (for
this reason, the majority of HAWTs use an upwind design, with the rotor facing
the wind in front of the tower).
• HAWTs require an additional yaw control mechanism to turn the
blades and nacelle toward the wind.
• In order to minimize fatigue loads due to wake turbulence,
wind turbines are usually sited a distance of 5 rotor diameters away from each
other, but the spacing depends on the manufacturer and the turbine model.
A massive tower structure is less frequently used, as
VAWTs are more frequently mounted with the lower bearing
mounted near the ground.
• Designs without yaw mechanisms are possible with fixed
pitch rotor designs.
• The generator of a VAWT can be located nearer the
ground, making it easier to maintain the moving parts.
• VAWTs have lower wind startup speeds than HAWTs.
Typically, they start creating electricity at 6 m.p.h. (10
• VAWTs may be built at locations where taller structures
• VAWTs situated close to the ground can take advantage of
locations where mesas, hilltops, ridgelines, and passes
funnel the wind and increase wind velocity.
• VAWTs may have a lower noise signature.
A VAWT that uses guy-wires to hold it in place puts stress on the bottom bearing
as all the weight of the rotor is on the bearing. Guy wires attached to the top
bearing increase downward thrust in wind gusts. Solving this problem requires a
superstructure to hold a top bearing in place to eliminate the downward thrusts
of gust events in guy wired models.
• The stress in each blade due to wind loading changes sign
twice during each revolution as the apparent wind direction moves through 360
degrees. This reversal of the stress increases the likelihood of blade failure
• While VAWTs' components are located on the ground, they are
also located under the weight of the structure above it, which can make changing
out parts very difficult without dismantling the structure, if not designed
• Having rotors located close to the ground where wind speeds
are lower due to the ground's surface drag, VAWTs may not produce as much energy
at a given site as a HAWT with the same footprint or height.
GRINOR provide the best products which have been
awarded such international certificates: